ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U

29.10.2021 5 Comments

ALLPlayer License Key  - Crack Key For U

Djs utilize it on their own pc program to play songs. You are able to very easily substitute your turntables and CD gamers. Virtual DJ Pro crack 2022 provides. Furthermore, it can perform a movie as though it was wallpaper. Also comes installed with a speech synthesizer program that may read back subtitles if you're. ALLPlayer 8.8.6 Crack + License Key Free Download 2022 Avi health professional lets when you are downloading the torrent record and will. ALLPlayer License Key  - Crack Key For U

watch the thematic video

How to Get Software With License Key (Not Crack Software) - SINHALA

ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U -

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack with License Key Latest 2022

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack with License Key Latest 2022 Download

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack

This software can even uninstall those programs which do not allow it to. IObit Uninstaller Pro Crack can uninstall any type of file even if it is large or hard to uninstall. It will take just a few minutes to completely uninstall programs that are not being used or not necessary. Sometimes files got installed without your permission and stick with your hard disk, but this software will uninstall those programs also.

Before uninstalling any program it asks for your permission, after checking a box IObit Uninstaller Pro License Key will start its work in the background without interrupting you. Before uninstalling any program it keeps its back up so in case if you wanna use that program again you can do that.

You can reinstall that program anytime you want using the backup of uninstalled programs. It’s not necessary that unwanted programs can be only software which you install by yourself some other plugins, toolbars can also be installed while you are using the internet without letting you notice. This software has features to uninstall them also.

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11 License Key Full Working (2022)

If your hard disk space is full and you need space to install software that is important for your work then you need to first uninstall unnecessary files that are doing nothing but just consuming space. Sometimes programs are not being used for months and they are no more necessary than it’s better to remove them from the hard disk.

There is a number of uninstaller program available in the market which can uninstall files but few are trustworthy. IObit Uninstaller Pro is one of the best uninstaller tools which can do its work with efficiency and like a professional. IObit Uninstaller Pro Key software scans your operating system to check which program is necessary to use and which one is doing nothing but just consuming space.

Some uninstallers do their work with efficiency but they can’t remove the leftovers after uninstalling any program. If you have downloaded this software then there will be no trace of uninstalled programs in your operating system. IObit Uninstaller Pro 11 Crack software is easy to use and understand, any user can utilize all its features and functions without having any problem.

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack With Key Free Download

There are many tools and features which are optional, it’s your choice whether to use them or not. Either choose only uninstalling specific programs or default uninstaller. If you choose File shredding to option them this software will keep only programs that are necessary and eliminate all unnecessary files from your operating system.

It will completely scan your system to check all installed programs and filtered them within just a few minutes. After uninstalling it scans again for the leftovers, if there are any it will immediately remove that. IObit Uninstaller Pro Keygen categorized all the installed software by giving them priority on which one is most necessary and running in the operating system.

It has an uninstallation process just like default windows do. IObit Uninstaller Pro Serial Key can easily uninstall programs that are hard to uninstall. If there are these types of programs present that do not allow to uninstall them then there is an option of Force Uninstall given in this tool which forcefully uninstalls programs.

IObit Uninstaller Pro Key Features:

  • It has a feature to remove all unnecessary programs by uninstalling them to free up disk space so you can keep the necessary files in it.
  • It scans your whole computer to find suspicious and corrupted installed files within a few minutes to get rid of them.
  • It can remove the traces of uninstalled applications by using advanced features, No unnecessary software will be present anymore.
  • Whenever you install a new program it monitors it first to check if there is any unnecessary application is being installed with it or not.
  • It prevents any popups to slow down your speed by installing apps themselves.
  • Sometimes when an antivirus removes viruses hen some of their traces remain hidden, but this software has tools that can find those sticky traces to remove them completely.
  • Sometimes when you uninstall a program then suddenly your PC reboots, due to reboot your uninstallation stops in middle but this software will continue that to uninstall from your operating system to free up space.
  • Before uninstalling a program it keeps their backup in a safer place so you can use them later.
  • Its scanning features are one of the amazing functions that can thoroughly check the computer to find out unnecessary applications/programs.

What’s New in IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14?

  • The algorithm has been improved as compared to older versions. It can recognize windows applications and many new tools had been added to the Microsoft store.
  • Software updater has been improved, now it can update the program inaccurate and less time.
  • Incorrect detection has been fixed by optimized bundleware which can help you to detect correctly.
  • There were some known bugs present in older versions that have been fixed now.

Pros:

  • It gives quick installation and uninstallation.
  • Before uninstalling any program it creates a backup first, so you can restore that later.
  • It also supports batch uninstalls which are hardly supported by other software.
  • It completely scans your all programs, extensions, and plugins to find unnecessary files.
  • Some updates start to install automatically which is even not necessary, it prevents that to happen.
  • It gives you a complete list of useful programs that need to be updated into the new version.
  • After creating a list it will export it into a text file so you can thoroughly examine all programs.
  • It also allows you to drag or drop any program you want to uninstall.
  • It also has a portable version.
  • It keeps limited programs that need to be present in an operating system.

IObit Uninstaller Pro Serial Key:

JHYED-5INBC-R6XE5-CMI0M-R6E5C

V6B7I-9D5SE-4C5BM-I9E5C-5MI0N

8V6C5-X4CD5-9IK98-7V6CD-5XSCD

FVB9K-I965S-D5GH6-78SDF-G9SD9

IObit Uninstaller Pro License Key:

JKKJM-HXSAK-J9H8D-43KBG-7FV6C

DXSA3-MXS3Z-AX3CV-5GT6H-IK8YT

IObit Uninstaller Pro Registration Key:

BDE5TYUUNYTR6D5ES56UH5RTYUI546GY8

75RTFCHJI5E4FHU76R5RDFVCFDE56RTIGX

76TCFGVGYIT65RFGJHUI897657RYJYIT68R5

How to Install IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack?

  • Download the setup first from the link which is given at the bottom.
  • Run the downloaded setup using WinRAR.
  • Follow all instructions to continue the installation.
  • Wait for a moment, now enter the serial key to use premium features for the lifetime.
  • Wait a few seconds, all done.

Download IObit Uninstaller Pro from link given:

Download Link

Summary

Reviewer

Noman

Review Date

Reviewed Item

IObit Uninstaller Pro

Author Rating

Software Name

IObit Uninstaller Pro Crack

Software Name

All

Software Category

IObit Uninstaller Pro 9.5.0.15 Crack

Источник: https://bonafidebusiness.ch/?big=iobit-uninstaller-pro-8-5-0-8-crack-with-serial-key-2019-full-version/

AllPlayer 8.8.5 Crack + License Key Free Download Latest Version 2021

ALLPlayer Crack With Activation Code Free Downloadstands out from other free media players with its superior subtitle options. It has an updated design and reproduces almost everything, but it really excels in video subtitles. It automatically searches all available matching subtitles, and its self-taught smart subtitles remain on the screen for as long as you need them. All player also supports dual monitors or monitor / TV output, S / PD IF, Dolby Surround, and Parental Controls, and your AVI Doctor can preview downloading torrents and repair broken files.

It also has a build-in free converter that can convert new formats like x264 or MKV to the format playable on your DVD/DivX device, PSP, iPod, iPhone, and all other mobile phones. It has also a live updater that keeps you updated with the latest codecs-pack. AVI Doctor helps when you are downloading a torrent file and want to preview the movie. With AVI Doctor you can also fix the Broken file. With LiveUpdate, you will get access to other skins and many additional programs and functions. Give LiveUpdate a try and you will experience a new way of watching movies on PC.

All player Latest Version With Free Crack is perhaps the foremost well-liked program for observance movies with matching subtitles. It plays all familiar media formats, RAR files, associated moreover has an enforced LiveUpdate perform to update the newest codecs if there’s a haul with a gap a film file. The program additionally searches for matching subtitles in all told languages mechanically. Intelligent Subtitles keeps the subtitles on the screen for the amount of time required for you to browse them. AVI Doctor helps once you square measure downloading a torrent file and wish to preview the film. With AVI Doctor you’ll additionally fix broken files.

AllPlayer 8.8.5 Crack:

It plays all known media formats, RAR files, and furthermore has an implemented Live Update function to update the latest codecs if there is a problem with opening a movie file A full-screen mode can be activated, the aspect ratio can be modified, so that the image fits better on your screen, while it is also possible to adjust the brightness and contrast levels, and rotate or flip the picture.

You can take advantage of an equalizer and some built-in presets to make songs sound better, and you can access a pretty long list of radio stations and enable visualizations when playing music. It is possible to create, manage, and save playlists as MBL files and play tracks in a random mode or repeat a particular one. Last but not least, you can set up this media player to switch off when a movie is over, turn off the monitor, or shut down the PC.

Features:

  • Plays any video and audio format
  • Supports Dolby Surround, 3RD Audio, and SPIFF
  • Video covers and movie information download
  • Best MKS and Div Plus encoder
  • Displays video on two monitors
  • Playlist and equalizer
  • Free DivX subtitles mixer
  • TAR Player

[sociallocker]Download Link[/sociallocker]

What’s New?

  • Quick Subs Supervision will let you read all subtitles.
  • It filled with a module that serves to restore cracked and broken media.
  • Besides, there is a video clip that is built-in from any makeup to DivX AVI.

System Requirements:

  • It requires Windows 7, 8, and 10.
  • Low weight and cannot affect your workflow.
  • Supportive of Multi-languages.

How to Install:

Summary

Reviewer

Jack

Review Date

Reviewed Item

AllPlayer Crack

Author Rating

Software Name

AllPlayer

Software Name

PC/Mac

Software Category

Players

Источник: https://cracktomac.info/allplayer/

Allplayer 8.8.6 Crack is just a lightweight, unfastened media participant for watching films with subtitles. AllPlayer free latest It plays most of the regarded media codecs. Additionally, it has an implemented Live Update feature to restore the modern-day formats if there’s trouble with launching a picture album. The program also hunts for matching subtitles in languages automatically.

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack Free Download Latest Version 2022

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack Free Download Latest Version 2021

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack 2022 Complete Version may play a handful of videos and audio formats functions wise subtitles makes it possible to personalize the whole lot pretty without problems. Also, All player is an overlay for MediaPlayer and uses DirectX, which makes it viable to play virtually every other picture. This program is likewise integrated with a speech synthesizer program, allowing you to view movies with subtitles having a reader (dubbing).

RealPlayer Crack Free Download will be the primary player in the international that allows the “IQ textual content” function. That examines the length of the displayed subtitles; therefore, it may be displayed lengthy adequate for you to study the whole lot.

All full player version, together with using additional programs and simple codecs, helps playback of popular audio and video codecs, such as DivX, Xvid, mp3, along with Avi, Flv, mp4, 3gp, Mkv, m2ts, mpg, MPEG, Rmvb, WMV, QuickTime, MOV, FLAC, ape, along with many others known codecs may be carried out a solution to codecs built into this program (most effective All player wishes to become established). Also, All player has built special connectors to the opensubtitles.org servers that empower to look at the movie with fitting subtitles in a prompt manner.

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack 2022

In addition, it features a build-in that the unfastened converter could convert new codecs such as x264 or Mkv into the design working in your own DVD/Divx tool, PSP, iPod, iPhone, and all of the unique cellular phones. It has additionally stay updater which continues you current with the ultra-modern codecs- percent. Avi health professional lets when you are downloading the torrent record and will need to preview the film. With a medical professional, you could also fix the broken document with LiveUpdate.

You may get entry to unique skins and many additional functions and applications. Supply LiveUpdate an attempt, and you will experience a brand new method of looking for films on the computer.

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack Free Download Latest Version 2021

RealPlayer Features:

  • All container — picture review, pay for and sub-titles multi-function listing.
  • Photograph — shooting photos of these pictures (stills) — f 12 key.
  • The choice to redefine your keyboard.
  • Automatic shutdown after watching a picture.
  • Automated shifting off of the screen later appearing a movie.
  • AllPlayer 8.8.6 Auto-resume — resume taking a look at the film from the point wherever we completed.
  • Frame with the Assistance of framework browsing.
  • The capacity to play the film for a background.
  • Possibility of changing the playback speed from zero.1x to 2x picture pace.
  • Possibility of converting contrast, brightness, contrast, or saturation.
  • The opportunity of changing balance, quantity, and additionally via the AC 3 sound clean from, the potential for switching output For any assortment of channels.
  • Posted — on-screen series.
  • The capability to bypass the picture group within this program preferences (default 10 seconds).
  • Almost any size of this window to the picture — using the mouse-drag option.
  • Zoom in Fullscreen mode.
  • Easy get right of entry to filters employed by video and the capability to configure a lot of them to be enjoyed filters for the pc.
  • Easy get admission to newly opened files.
  • Duplicate function.
  • Widescreen television support.
  • Computerized choice of film decision in full-screen style.
  • The choice to alter movie scope individually from computer scope.

How To Crack It?

  • First of all, install the trial version.
  • Download the crack file from Below.
  • Run the software.
  • Wait a moment.
  • Then after completing the process, restart.
  • Now Enjoy It!
Источник: https://muzamilpc.com/allplayer-crack/

Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia ... are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users ... 524 people ... And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2018)

Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(December 2020)

Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization ... his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice ... and ... his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians ... remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

Ambox current red Americas.svg

Parts of this article (those related to d:Wikidata:Statistics/Wikipedia) need to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2017)

Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency ... We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority ... (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia
                      ALLPlayer 5.9  is the  laest version of  ALLPlayer . Which helps to you to play your files . It  gives you to luxury of play blue ray HD movies . It also helps you to play High Definition songs . It is  new software and design for decent people , It reduce your playing speed . It has new many changes . It is like a famous player . It is better  from all players . Download Free new version and enjoy your movies , songs and files with new and decent style . It has mind blowing rating .

ALLPlayer is an easy to use media player that supports most modern formats and that features intelligent Subtitles!

ALLPlayer is the first player in the world that enables IQ Text function, which analyzes the length of the displayed subtitles so that it would be displayed long enough for you to be able to read everything. 

Thanks to this function you won't miss any subtitles watching the film! Very often the subtitles come so fast one after another that you don't manage to read everything, but from now on, thanks to IQ Text, you won't have this problem any more - check yourself . 




Fetures 

  • Easy-to-use multimedia player
  • Simple video editor
  • Matching subtitles downloader built-in
  • Video menu creator
  • Converter built-in
  • Subtitles audio reader
  • Plays any video and audio format
  • Supports Dolby Surround, 3D Audio and SPDIF
  • Video covers and movie information download
  • Best MKV and Divx Plus encoder
  • Displays video on two monitors
  • Playlist and equalizer
  • DivX subtitles muxer
  • RAR Player


Changes 


  • better saving of your customized settings
  • better performance of multi-part video (e.g. episodes)




ALLPlayer  Crack Free Download 






Click Here To Star Download 





Источник: http://softnue.blogspot.com/2014/05/allplayer-crack-free-download.html

ALLPlayer 8.8.7 full screenshot

Top 4 Download periodically updates software information of ALLPlayer 8.8.7 full version from the publisher, but some information may be slightly out-of-date.

Using warez version, crack, warez passwords, patches, serial numbers, registration codes, key generator, pirate key, keymaker or keygen for ALLPlayer 8.8.7 license key is illegal and prevent future development of ALLPlayer 8.8.7. Download links are directly from our mirrors or publisher's website, ALLPlayer 8.8.7 torrent files or shared files from free file sharing and free upload services, including Rapidshare, MegaUpload, YouSendIt, SendSpace, DepositFiles, Letitbit, MailBigFile, DropSend, MediaMax, LeapFile, zUpload, HellShare, HotFile, FileServe, MyOtherDrive, DivShare or MediaFire, are not allowed!

Your computer will be at risk getting infected with spyware, adware, viruses, worms, trojan horses, dialers, etc while you are searching and browsing these illegal sites which distribute a so called keygen, key generator, pirate key, serial number, warez full version or crack for ALLPlayer 8.8.7. These infections might corrupt your computer installation or breach your privacy. A keygen or key generator might contain a trojan horse opening a backdoor on your computer. Hackers can use this backdoor to take control of your computer, copy data from your computer or to use your computer to distribute viruses and spam to other people.

Источник: https://www.top4download.com/allplayer/screenshot-vwuuvcsl.html

VLC Download Media Player Full Free for All Windows is powered by videoLAN. It is used to play all kind of videos like mp4, AVI, 144 pixel, 240 pixel, 360  pixel, 720 pixel and 1080 pixel as well audios.

VLC with Crack

Vlc media player is one of the best tool to play all types of audio such as mp3, HD sounds and etc. It is a complete solution to resolve all kind of problems regarding playing, editing, cutting, screen shooting. VLC player with crack also converts Higher Definition videos into mp3, av or mp4. It consists of a lot of shortcut keys which are are easy to handle this software. VLC Download with license key is used by billion people.  It is also developed by various themes which can be used by according to your choice and mind.

VLC download media player activation code is made up of awesome features like drag and drop method which is easy to play as well as handle. It is supported by many windows like ADOBE CREATIVE CLOUD 2020 CRACK + License Key Free 2020 Vista, windows 7, windows XP, windows, 8, and windows 10. All users can enjoy a lot of fun with the help of this complete media player pack solution. Its streaming ability is too much fast as compare to other media players in the world of software. Its capturing and maintaining capability of videos and audio will remain constant.  Its installation and activation is very easy by everyone with the help of few clicks.

Most Energetic Features of VLC Download with Serial Key Latest Version:

  1. All kind of videos HD quality or all types of sounds HD can be played by vlc free download.
  2. It is developed by VideoLan which is full free for you.
  3. It consists of several screening thems which can be changed as you want.
  4. VLC Download is made up of variou shortcut keys such as
  • B is used to change language.
  • A is used to change screen size.
  • V is used to change and turn on the sub-title.
  • M is used to mute the sound.
  • Space button is used to pause the video.
  • Ctrl+left arrow is used to backward video.
  • Ctrl+left arrow is used to forward video.
  • Ctrl+up arrow to increase the volume.
  • Ctrl+down arrow is used to decrease the volume.
  • And other etc keys.
  1. This VLC Download Media Player has ability to cut video, convert video to audio or high resolution to low resolution, to take snapshot from videos and etc.
  2. It is supported by all windows either 64bit or 32bit
  3. Free from all threats and bugs.
  4. Durability is long lasting and latest updates are also available day by day.
  5. Activation of Vlc player is not only simple but also easy to handle.
  6. Developed by different languages but most prominent language is English.
  7. This tool is most effective than other media players.

Screenshots:

VLC with License Key
VLC with Serial Key
VLC with Activation codes
VLC Media Player with codes

How to Activate vlc media player with license key?

  1. Download the setup.exe of VLC Media Player Latest Version from www.pcsoftwarez.net.
  2. simply run.
  3. Press few clicks
  4. Click Finish.
  5. Activation has done.
  6. Enjoy.

Tutorial of VLC Download Full Free

Free Download Links of VLC Media Player License Keys :

Setup.exe of VLC Download

Источник: https://www.pcsoftwarez.net/vlc-download/

January - last edited September by Phantomlover 7. Please refer to this FAQ for a few common issues and solutions. People there can usually help you better or contact an EA Game Advisor directly see below. The game no longer shows up in Origin. The game is grayed out in Origin. I made a new account but I can't register my game again. How can I remove the game from my account?

General download issues. Problems connecting to the gallery. How to contact a game advisor. If you bought the game on Origin, it's not necessary to register the code anywhere. You don't need the serial code. Make sure you typed the code right. The following letters look very similar and are easily mistaken for each other.

If it still says it's invalid, try taking it back to the store you bought it from and exchange it.

Powershell quser

If they are not willing to do that, contact an EA Game Advisor with proof of purchase ready. Contact the key seller for a replacement.

Hp z420 fan replacement

If you bought the game from a unauthorized seller, it's possible that EA blocked the key if they were bought fraudulently by the seller. You're better off to only buy from authorized sellers. You have already registered the game yourself and are trying to reinstall the game.

The game does not need to be registered again. The game only needs to be registered once and you won't need the code again after your initial registration. This is true for both the DVD and the download version. You can skip the activation step on reinstalling. This usually serato dj pro free download for windows 10 - Free Activators if you are logged out of Origin for some reason or if there was an Origin Client update. First you need to check if your payment has gone through.

Unless your order says fulfilled, you won't be able to download. If you have issues with your payment, you'll need to contact a game advisor. You don't need to rebuy the game or anything. You can't register already registered games again. You need access to the account the game was first registered on.The Sims 4 License Key is the highly anticipated life simulation game that lets you play with life like never before.

Create and control new Sims with mind, body, and heart. Build their unique homes. Direct and explore the stories of your Sims and experience delightful and exciting results. Play with life like never before in The Sims 4.

Your Sims now have emotions, offering you more choice by giving you the opportunity to create richer stories with even more possibilities. Control the mind, body, and heart of your Sims with dynamic, emotion-rich game play, and bring your stories to life.

Majority of the people want to play free game and they do not want spend their money. Now anyone can download free Sims 4 Vampire Crack without survey or hidden charges.

We added all necessary features as well player can create characters and control their life. We create this license keygen with full features and using this The Sims 4 Serial Key Generator you can become great player than any other online generator. Life simulation games are quite common however most of them have limitations.

Sims 4 Vampire Torrent introduces a new aspect of a life simulation game. The first impressive thing is based on the interface. Although it has many features it has a nice interface. The interface is easy for all users to understand. No user will struggle with any options. New features have been put in place. Among the new feature is the build mode. This is an impressive mode as users will be able to build sims home.

THE SIMS 4 KEY GENERATOR KEYGEN FOR FULL GAME + CRACK

Actually the feature gives users customization ability even in terms if the home design. Not only is building enabled but also special details such as the interior. You get to decide on your preferred color. Sims 4 Activation Code are now fully controlled by users. By playing the game you are able to turn your fantasies into a reality. You will be able to even create special moments in the sims life. You can move the sims along avenues and make them meet up with other sims.Today we will share activation key list after some introduction of new edition of this game which called The Sims 4.

The Sims 4 game is publish by Electronic Arts. Player can create their virtual world after build homes as beautiful as they can. You have control in game as same as you had played in sims 3 version, there is no difference between these parts. Majority of the people want to play free game and they do not want spend their money.

We added all necessary features as ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U player can create characters and control their life. We create this license keygen with full features and using this The Sims 4 Serial Key Generator you can become great player than any other online generator.

It will not take too much time to generate activation codes and work in a minute.

cracks101.com

They think that it may be viruses or malware. This is very simple to use. When you will successfully install it choose the system where you want to play the game. When you sure about that fully code has generate copy and play your favourite game for free. Auto Updated Function Available. Like this: Like Loading Soccer Stars Cheat Hacker. Heroes of Camelot Cheat Hacker.

Games Hack Tools June 27, April 04, January 24, View All. Games Key Generators May 04, April 02, December 03, Millions of fanatics global are captivated with life simulation, creating cities and neighborhoods, defining the careers and lives of generations of their Sims.

The Sims four desires to take the next step in to make the simulation even extra intriguing and unique, yet as emphasizing the coronary heart and soul of the Sims series. The Sims four will provide thousands and thousands of gamers around the sector with a super unmarried-player offline revel in where they can create complete worlds and stay their creativity freely.

This application is one of the most successful games ever made. You can create cities and neighborhoods and also make your career as you see fit. With the Sims 4 Crack, you will take the next step to make your simulation better, unique and intriguing. If you play the game, you might find yourself taking hours and hours without even realizing it.

Afs super flex

The Sims 4 Crack has been rated the most realistic, liveliest and lovable Sims game ever. In short, Sims 4 Crack is better than the previous versions by far.

sims 4 license key 2019

Remember its fully free with all download and installation to activation guideline. All player activated and appear on playing mode with all own function and options. That is bet soft game with fully enjoy in family along all types of options and mode that included or unlocked full version. All functions provides accurate output with quick action response feature. In this all character comes with proper shapes and styles so easy to handle and manage from all corners.

Provides a lot of fun with advanced featured base things from all aspects here.

The Sims 4 Plus Cats Dogs Serial Key PC MAC XBOX PS

I am not going to pay for this, simply no. Injustice 2 Pro Crack With Torrent. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email.

sims 4 license key 2019

Contents hide. Leave a Reply Cancel reply.Enabled to Sims 4 License Key is hugely anticipated life simulation game that permits the user to play with life and generates the fresh Sims with feeling and intelligence, whose each action is plagued and educated by their emotional and interactions states. It is based on a complicated algorithm, and this generator produces unlimited keys for the Sims 4.

Furthermore, you can explore beautiful words with a particular environment and tour to neighborhoods where user can go to venues and meet different thrilling Sims. Sims 4 License Key Latest Version has additional modern features with simulating support quality. In this game, everything can be produced by the user and displays their ideal life could look like.

Get the brand new variant of The Sims 4 from the given link below and experience gambling recreation. This simulator is impressive and different from other simulators and has fantastic tools and features. It helps to build up your imagination into reality with personalized features. You will get automatically notified about the new updates and features included in The Sims 4. The action work available to Sims will also change regarding the current mood.

Sims 4 License Key is widely popular due to giving the new world to please a digital life free of cost. Also, it is free from all types of bugs, trojans, spyware, threats, malware, and viruses. Moreover, it fixes the issues regarding this game effortlessly. It has an incredibly fantastic display which attracts the user. Your email address will not be published. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.Hello, welcome to my site.

You probably should not have obstacles using this type of The Sims 4: Seasons keygen. Just simply mouse click a couple of keys. Functioning key are going to be exposed for quite a few minutes.

sims 4 license key 2019

Lots of people are searching for strategy to download The Sims 4: Seasons for free of charge with no results? Even though it can surely switch.

Deviantart slime belly story

Simply speaking download this useful application and just test it for you. We are now happy reviewing everyone that amazing hottest tool.

The The Sims 4: Seasons serial keygen which provides anyone ability access free game. The Sims 4: Seasons Keygen it can be keygen in which generates an original serial code. All of our available cd-key generator and cracks have build antiban solution so they really happen to be completely buried.

sims 4 license key 2019

We all worked hard develop this unique app and additionally our new crew mysteriously were find out most desirable algorithm that will create codes. Utilizing my fresh new tool it is easy to enjoy on videogame without having any troubles.

Furthermore our organization contains most of the security certificates you will discover on the Internet. Quite frankly function this key generator and then procrastinate a short time and therefore play in video game.

The Sims 4: Seasons serial is actually incredible and also user-friendly and uncomplicated! That The Sims 4: Seasons full game product offers repeatedly enhancements. Brak komentarzy.

Subskrybuj: Komentarze do posta Atom. Popularne posty. This Hitman 2 Serial Keygen is without a doubt performing great This Bus Simulator 18 Serial Keygen is without a doubt performin Follow by Email.In November 2017, Vladimir Batagelj, a professor from the University of Ljubljana, will offer several courses at the master's program of ANR-Lab 'Applied Statistics with Social Network Analysis'.

The first year student of the Master's program "Applied statistics with Social network analysis" Elena Belina has got the second place in the project "Scientific battles of the Higher School of Economics", which was held on November 2, 2017 in Yandex.

Sims 4 License Key + Serial Number 2020 [Crack] Free

On September 15-17, the first joint seminar of ANR-Lab employees and students took place at the NRU HSE educational center in Voronovo. International Laboratory for Applied Network Research invites you to join our online-seminar which will be held on April 17 at 7:00 p. Join our second online-seminar on April 3 at 7pm.

Istio security

Alexander Semenov talks about machine learning algorithms performance in predicting game outcomes in Dota 2. Website templates are designed by Art. More Food Safety Follow these simple tips to avoid food poisoning, or foodborne illness, during the holidays.

More Language:English (US) File Formats Help:How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site. FAO develops methods and standards for food and agriculture statistics, provides technical assistance services and disseminates data for global monitoring.

Statistical activities at FAO include the development and implementation of methodologies and standards for data collection, validation, processing and analysis. FAO also plays a vital part in the global compilation, processing and dissemination of food and agriculture statistics, and provides essential statistical capacity development to member countries.

Statistical activities at FAO cover the areas of agriculture, forestry and fisheries, land and water resources and use, climate, environment, population, gender, nutrition, poverty, rural development, education and health as well as many others. The Statistical Programme of Work provides a summary of all of the principal statistical activities at FAO, and a detailed description of all the individual statistical activities carried out by FAO Divisions active in the field of statistics.

FAO is the custodian UN agency for 21 indicators, which monitor 16 targets under six of the Sustainable Development Goals. It also contributes to monitoring four additional SDG indicators. As a custodian agency, FAO is responsible for collecting data from national sources, validating and harmonizing them, estimating regional and global aggregates and making them available for international reporting.

Mw3 mod menu 2019

FAO is also responsible for leading the methodological development of the 21 indicators and for providing coordinated technical assistance to countries with the objective of enabling them to produce their own data in the long run. Visit the FAO and the SDGs website for more information. The 6th Workshop on Biostatistics and Bioinformatics is scheduled to take place May 4-6, 2018, in Atlanta.

Hosted by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Georgia State University, the goal of the workshop is to stimulate research and to foster the interaction of researchers in Biostatistics and Bioinformatics. It will provide the opportunity for faculty and graduate students to meet with top researchers in small group settings, identify important directions for future research, and facilitate research collaboration.

The keynote speaker is Hongyu Zhao, the Ira V. Hiscock Professor of Biostatistics and Professor of Statistics and Genetics at Yale University and the recipient of the Mortimer Spiegelman Award. Invited sessions and a poster session are also part of the workshop. Partial travel awards will be awarded to select conference participants as priority will be given to senior graduate students, post-graduate, recent Ph.

Ds, junior faculty, and under-represented groups.


Источник: https://mxz.librariesnavsource.site/sims-4-license-key-2019.html

Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world DVDFab Passkey 9.3.9.8 Free Download with Crack, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

CyberLink YouCam Crack src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/English_Wikipedia_HomePage_2001-12-20.png/220px-English_Wikipedia_HomePage_2001-12-20.png" width="220" height="363">
The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community . a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia . are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users . 524 people . And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U height="300">
Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Microsoft Office 2019 Crack License Key Latest Version Free Download would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2018)

Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(December 2020)

Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization . his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice . and . his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians . remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

Ambox current red Americas.svg

Parts of this article (those related to d:Wikidata:Statistics/Wikipedia) need to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2017)

Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are Little Snitch Crack 5.2.2 & Product Key [Latest] 2021 pushing toward more transparency . We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority . (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro Avira Prime Free Download, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, ALLPlayer License Key - Crack Key For U ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia

ALLPlayer 8.8.7 full screenshot

Top 4 Download periodically updates software information of ALLPlayer 8.8.7 full version from the publisher, but some information may be slightly out-of-date.

Using warez version, crack, warez passwords, patches, serial numbers, registration codes, key generator, pirate key, keymaker or keygen for ALLPlayer 8.8.7 license key is illegal and prevent future development of ALLPlayer 8.8.7. Download links are directly from our mirrors or publisher's website, ALLPlayer 8.8.7 torrent files or shared files from free file sharing and free upload services, including Rapidshare, MegaUpload, YouSendIt, SendSpace, DepositFiles, Letitbit, MailBigFile, DropSend, MediaMax, LeapFile, zUpload, HellShare, HotFile, FileServe, MyOtherDrive, DivShare or MediaFire, are not allowed!

Your computer will be at risk getting infected with spyware, adware, viruses, worms, trojan horses, dialers, etc while you are searching and browsing these illegal sites which distribute a so called keygen, key generator, pirate key, serial number, warez full version or crack for ALLPlayer 8.8.7. These infections might corrupt your computer installation or breach your privacy. A keygen or key generator might contain a trojan horse opening a backdoor on your computer. Hackers can use this backdoor to take control of your computer, copy data from your computer or to use your computer to distribute viruses and spam to other people.

Источник: https://www.top4download.com/allplayer/screenshot-vwuuvcsl.html

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack with License Key Latest 2022

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack with License Key Latest 2022 Download

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack

This software can even uninstall those programs which do not allow it to. IObit Uninstaller Pro Crack can uninstall any type of file even if it is large or hard to uninstall. It will take just a few minutes to completely uninstall programs that are not being used or not necessary. Sometimes files got installed without your permission and stick with your hard disk, but this software will uninstall those programs also.

Before uninstalling any program it asks for your permission, after checking a box IObit Uninstaller Pro License Key will start its work in the background without interrupting you. Before uninstalling any program it keeps its back up so in case if you wanna use that program again you can do that.

You can reinstall that program anytime you want using the backup of uninstalled programs. It’s not necessary that unwanted programs can be only software which you install by yourself some other plugins, toolbars can also be installed while you are using the internet without letting you notice. This software has features to uninstall them also.

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11 License Key Full Working (2022)

If your hard disk space is full and you need space to install software that is important for your work then you need to first uninstall unnecessary files that are doing nothing but just consuming space. Sometimes programs are not being used for months and they are no more necessary than it’s better to remove them from the hard disk.

There is a number of uninstaller program available in the market which can uninstall files but few are trustworthy. IObit Uninstaller Pro is one of the best uninstaller tools which can do its work with efficiency and like a professional. IObit Uninstaller Pro Key software scans your operating system to check which program is necessary to use and which one is doing nothing but just consuming space.

Some uninstallers do their work with efficiency but they can’t remove the leftovers after uninstalling any program. If you have downloaded this software then there will be no trace of uninstalled programs in your operating system. IObit Uninstaller Pro 11 Crack software is easy to use and understand, any user can utilize all its features and functions without having any problem.

IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack With Key Free Download

There are many tools and features which are optional, it’s your choice whether to use them or not. Either choose only uninstalling specific programs or default uninstaller. If you choose File shredding to option them this software will keep only programs that are necessary and eliminate all unnecessary files from your operating system.

It will completely scan your system to check all installed programs and filtered them within just a few minutes. After uninstalling it scans again for the leftovers, if there are any it will immediately remove that. IObit Uninstaller Pro Keygen categorized all the installed software by giving them priority on which one is most necessary and running in the operating system.

It has an uninstallation process just like default windows do. IObit Uninstaller Pro Serial Key can easily uninstall programs that are hard to uninstall. If there are these types of programs present that do not allow to uninstall them then there is an option of Force Uninstall given in this tool which forcefully uninstalls programs.

IObit Uninstaller Pro Key Features:

  • It has a feature to remove all unnecessary programs by uninstalling them to free up disk space so you can keep the necessary files in it.
  • It scans your whole computer to find suspicious and corrupted installed files within a few minutes to get rid of them.
  • It can remove the traces of uninstalled applications by using advanced features, No unnecessary software will be present anymore.
  • Whenever you install a new program it monitors it first to check if there is any unnecessary application is being installed with it or not.
  • It prevents any popups to slow down your speed by installing apps themselves.
  • Sometimes when an antivirus removes viruses hen some of their traces remain hidden, but this software has tools that can find those sticky traces to remove them completely.
  • Sometimes when you uninstall a program then suddenly your PC reboots, due to reboot your uninstallation stops in middle but this software will continue that to uninstall from your operating system to free up space.
  • Before uninstalling a program it keeps their backup in a safer place so you can use them later.
  • Its scanning features are one of the amazing functions that can thoroughly check the computer to find out unnecessary applications/programs.

What’s New in IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14?

  • The algorithm has been improved as compared to older versions. It can recognize windows applications and many new tools had been added to the Microsoft store.
  • Software updater has been improved, now it can update the program inaccurate and less time.
  • Incorrect detection has been fixed by optimized bundleware which can help you to detect correctly.
  • There were some known bugs present in older versions that have been fixed now.

Pros:

  • It gives quick installation and uninstallation.
  • Before uninstalling any program it creates a backup first, so you can restore that later.
  • It also supports batch uninstalls which are hardly supported by other software.
  • It completely scans your all programs, extensions, and plugins to find unnecessary files.
  • Some updates start to install automatically which is even not necessary, it prevents that to happen.
  • It gives you a complete list of useful programs that need to be updated into the new version.
  • After creating a list it will export it into a text file so you can thoroughly examine all programs.
  • It also allows you to drag or drop any program you want to uninstall.
  • It also has a portable version.
  • It keeps limited programs that need to be present in an operating system.

IObit Uninstaller Pro Serial Key:

JHYED-5INBC-R6XE5-CMI0M-R6E5C

V6B7I-9D5SE-4C5BM-I9E5C-5MI0N

8V6C5-X4CD5-9IK98-7V6CD-5XSCD

FVB9K-I965S-D5GH6-78SDF-G9SD9

IObit Uninstaller Pro License Key:

JKKJM-HXSAK-J9H8D-43KBG-7FV6C

DXSA3-MXS3Z-AX3CV-5GT6H-IK8YT

IObit Uninstaller Pro Registration Key:

BDE5TYUUNYTR6D5ES56UH5RTYUI546GY8

75RTFCHJI5E4FHU76R5RDFVCFDE56RTIGX

76TCFGVGYIT65RFGJHUI897657RYJYIT68R5

How to Install IObit Uninstaller Pro 11.0.1.14 Crack?

  • Download the setup first from the link which is given at the bottom.
  • Run the downloaded setup using WinRAR.
  • Follow all instructions to continue the installation.
  • Wait for a moment, now enter the serial key to use premium features for the lifetime.
  • Wait a few seconds, all done.

Download IObit Uninstaller Pro from link given:

Download Link

Summary

Reviewer

Noman

Review Date

Reviewed Item

IObit Uninstaller Pro

Author Rating

Software Name

IObit Uninstaller Pro Crack

Software Name

All

Software Category

IObit Uninstaller Pro 9.5.0.15 Crack

Источник: https://bonafidebusiness.ch/?big=iobit-uninstaller-pro-8-5-0-8-crack-with-serial-key-2019-full-version/

Allplayer 8.8.6 Crack is just a lightweight, unfastened media participant for watching films with subtitles. AllPlayer free latest It plays most of the regarded media codecs. Additionally, it has an implemented Live Update feature to restore the modern-day formats if there’s trouble with launching a picture album. The program also hunts for matching subtitles in languages automatically.

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack Free Download Latest Version 2022

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack Free Download Latest Version 2021

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack 2022 Complete Version may play a handful of videos and audio formats functions wise subtitles makes it possible to personalize the whole lot pretty without problems. Also, All player is an overlay for MediaPlayer and uses DirectX, which makes it viable to play virtually every other picture. This program is likewise integrated with a speech synthesizer program, allowing you to view movies with subtitles having a reader (dubbing).

RealPlayer Crack Free Download will be the primary player in the international that allows the “IQ textual content” function. That examines the length of the displayed subtitles; therefore, it may be displayed lengthy adequate for you to study the whole lot.

All full player version, together with using additional programs and simple codecs, helps playback of popular audio and video codecs, such as DivX, Xvid, mp3, along with Avi, Flv, mp4, 3gp, Mkv, m2ts, mpg, MPEG, Rmvb, WMV, QuickTime, MOV, FLAC, ape, along with many others known codecs may be carried out a solution to codecs built into this program (most effective All player wishes to become established). Also, All player has built special connectors to the opensubtitles.org servers that empower to look at the movie with fitting subtitles in a prompt manner.

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack 2022

In addition, it features a build-in that the unfastened converter could convert new codecs such as x264 or Mkv into the design working in your own DVD/Divx tool, PSP, iPod, iPhone, and all of the unique cellular phones. It has additionally stay updater which continues you current with the ultra-modern codecs- percent. Avi health professional lets when you are downloading the torrent record and will need to preview the film. With a medical professional, you could also fix the broken document with LiveUpdate.

You may get entry to unique skins and many additional functions and applications. Supply LiveUpdate an attempt, and you will experience a brand new method of looking for films on the computer.

AllPlayer 8.8.6 Crack Free Download Latest Version 2021

RealPlayer Features:

  • All container — picture review, pay for and sub-titles multi-function listing.
  • Photograph — shooting photos of these pictures (stills) — f 12 key.
  • The choice to redefine your keyboard.
  • Automatic shutdown after watching a picture.
  • Automated shifting off of the screen later appearing a movie.
  • AllPlayer 8.8.6 Auto-resume — resume taking a look at the film from the point wherever we completed.
  • Frame with the Assistance of framework browsing.
  • The capacity to play the film for a background.
  • Possibility of changing the playback speed from zero.1x to 2x picture pace.
  • Possibility of converting contrast, brightness, contrast, or saturation.
  • The opportunity of changing balance, quantity, and additionally via the AC 3 sound clean from, the potential for switching output For any assortment of channels.
  • Posted — on-screen series.
  • The capability to bypass the picture group within this program preferences (default 10 seconds).
  • Almost any size of this window to the picture — using the mouse-drag option.
  • Zoom in Fullscreen mode.
  • Easy get right of entry to filters employed by video and the capability VideoScribe License key configure a lot of them to be enjoyed filters for the pc.
  • Easy get admission to newly opened files.
  • Duplicate function.
  • Widescreen television support.
  • Computerized choice of film decision in full-screen style.
  • The choice to alter movie scope individually from computer scope.

How To Crack It?

  • First of all, install the trial version.
  • Download the crack file from Below.
  • Run the software.
  • Wait a moment.
  • Then after completing the process, restart.
  • Now Enjoy It!
Источник: https://muzamilpc.com/allplayer-crack/

AllPlayer 8.8.5 Crack + License Key Free Download Latest Version 2021

ALLPlayer Crack With Activation Code Free Downloadstands out from other free media players with its superior subtitle options. It has an updated design and reproduces almost everything, but it really excels in video subtitles. It automatically searches all available matching subtitles, and its self-taught smart subtitles remain on the screen for as long as you need them. All player also supports dual monitors or monitor / TV output, S / PD IF, Dolby Surround, and Parental Controls, and your AVI Doctor can preview downloading torrents and repair broken files.

It also has a build-in free converter that can convert new formats like x264 or MKV to the format playable on your DVD/DivX device, PSP, iPod, iPhone, and all other mobile phones. It has also a live updater that keeps you updated with the latest codecs-pack. AVI Doctor helps when you are downloading a torrent file and want to preview the movie. With AVI Doctor you can also fix the Broken file. With LiveUpdate, you will get access to other skins and many additional programs and functions. Give LiveUpdate a try and you will experience a new way of watching movies on PC.

All player Latest Version With Free Crack is perhaps the foremost well-liked program for observance movies with matching subtitles. It plays all familiar media formats, RAR files, associated moreover has an enforced LiveUpdate perform to update the newest codecs if there’s a haul with a gap a film file. The program additionally searches for matching subtitles in all told languages mechanically. Intelligent Subtitles keeps the subtitles on the screen for the amount of time required for you to browse them. AVI Doctor helps once you square measure downloading a torrent file and wish to preview the film. With AVI Doctor you’ll additionally fix broken files.

AllPlayer 8.8.5 Crack:

It plays all known media formats, RAR files, and furthermore has an implemented Live Update function to update the latest codecs if there is a problem with opening a movie file A full-screen mode can be activated, the aspect ratio can be modified, so that the image fits better on your screen, while it is also possible to adjust the brightness and contrast levels, and rotate or flip the picture.

You can take advantage of an equalizer and some built-in presets to make songs sound better, and you can access a pretty long list of radio stations and enable visualizations when playing music. It is possible to create, manage, and save playlists as MBL files and play tracks in a random mode or repeat a particular one. Last but not least, you can set up this media player to switch off when a movie is over, turn off the monitor, or shut down the PC.

Features:

  • Plays any video and audio format
  • Supports Dolby Surround, 3RD Audio, and SPIFF
  • Video covers and movie information download
  • Best MKS and Div Plus encoder
  • Displays video on two monitors
  • Playlist and equalizer
  • Free DivX subtitles mixer
  • TAR Player

[sociallocker]Download Link[/sociallocker]

What’s New?

  • Quick Subs Supervision will let you read all subtitles.
  • It filled with a module that serves to restore cracked and broken media.
  • Besides, there is a video clip that is built-in from any makeup to DivX AVI.

System Requirements:

  • It requires Windows 7, 8, and 10.
  • Low weight and cannot affect your workflow.
  • Supportive of Multi-languages.

How to Install:

Summary

Reviewer

Jack

Review Date

Reviewed Item

AllPlayer Crack

Author Rating

Software Name

AllPlayer

Software Name

PC/Mac

Software Category

Players

Источник: https://cracktomac.info/allplayer/

Notice: Undefined variable: z_bot in /sites/theindy.us/license-crack/allplayer-license-key-crack-key-for-u.php on line 178

Notice: Undefined variable: z_empty in /sites/theindy.us/license-crack/allplayer-license-key-crack-key-for-u.php on line 178

5 Comments

  1. To be hoñest, I don’t know how you manage to do such a good job everÿ single time. Very well done DAHCYBER

  2. Wirat Paka-anunkakul аё‚аё­аёљаё„аёёаё“аёЎаёІаёЃаё„аёЈаё±аёљ

  3. В @bhakti pimpraleВ  Guy's I'm posting again here... After 2 month's.. I'm getting placed in 4 companies "Cognizant", "TCS", "Wipro", "Os3 Infotech Pvt. Lmtd.".. hard work pays off.. I'm so happy guys.. so I can do it. Then you definitely do it.. check my first comment.. when I have no idea about placement but now I have multiple offers in my hand.. this happens due to my hard work and your blessings guy's вќ¤пёЏвќ¤пёЏ

Leave a Comment